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中国草原立法中法律责任规定之不足与完善

古力克孜·拜克日 郑婼予 李媛辉

引用本文: 古力克孜·拜克日,郑婼予,李媛辉. 中国草原立法中法律责任规定之不足与完善. 草业科学, 2022, 39(4): 806-818 doi: shu
Citation:  Gulikezi·Baikeri, ZHENG R Y, LI Y H. Insufficiency and perfection of the legal liability regulations in China’s grassland legislation. Pratacultural Science, 2022, 39(4): 806-818 doi: shu

中国草原立法中法律责任规定之不足与完善

    作者简介: 古力克孜·拜克日(1996-),女(维吾尔族),新疆阿克苏人,在读硕士生,研究方向为环境与资源保护法。E-mail: gulikezi_law@163.com
    通讯作者: 李媛辉(1969-),女,湖南益阳人,教授,博士,研究方向为环境与资源保护法。E-mail: xzf100083@163.com
  • 基金项目: 国家社会科学基金重大项目“国家治理现代化视域下的生态环境保护法律体系研究”(20ZDA089);国家林业和草原局委托项目“草原法修改相关法衔接问题研究”(2021042016)

摘要: 通过对《草原法》及13个省、自治区20部草原法规中违法行为的法律责任进行梳理,整合分析2009年至2018年《全国草原违法案件统计分析报告》中的8类违法行为数据发现,其中违反草原禁牧休牧规定、非法临时占用使用草原、非法开垦草原、违反草畜平衡规定4类违法行为案发率高且对草原破坏性大;对这4类违法行为的法律责任分析,比较上位法与下位法间法律责任规定的异同,发现《草原法》存在立法空白、罚款力度太轻、个别省级草原法规与草原法的处罚幅度不一致等不足;建议从补充立法空白、提高罚款数额、加强省级草原法规与草原法的衔接等方面予以改进。

English

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  • 凯时66

    表 1  中国省级草原保护法规发展情况回顾

    Table 1.  Review of the development of China’s provincial grassland protection laws and regulations

    序号
    Serial number
    发布年份
    Release year
    法规名称
    Regulation name
    修正(订)年份
    Revised year
    1 1983 内蒙古自治区草原管理条例
    Regulations of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on
    Grassland Management
    1991年、2005年
    1991 Year、2005 Year
    2 1983 宁夏回族自治区草原管理条例
    Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Grassland Management
    1994年、2006年
    1944 Year、2006 Year
    3 1984 黑龙江省草原条例
    Regulations of Heilongjiang Province on Grassland
    1994年、2006年、2016年、2018年
    1994 Year、2006 Year、2016 Year、2018 Year
    4 1984 新疆维吾尔自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic
    of China”
    1989年、1997年、2011年
    1989 Year、1997 Year、2011 Year
    5 1986 贵州省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》暂行办法
    Interim Measures of the Guizhou Province for the Implementation
    of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    6 1987 吉林省草原管理条例
    Regulations of Jilin Province on Grassland Management
    1997年
    1997 Year
    7 1989 甘肃省草原条例
    Regulations of Gansu Province on Grassland
    1997年、2004年、2007年
    1997 Year、2004 Year、2007 Year
    8 1990 青海省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Qinghai Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    2001年、2008年、2010年、2018年、2020年
    2001 Year、2008 Year、2010 Year、2018 Year、2020 Year
    9 1990 四川省《中华人民共和国草原法》实施办法
    Measures of the Implementation for the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China” in Sichuan Province
    2006年
    2006 Year
    10 1994 陕西省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of Shaanxi Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    2009年、2014年、2021年
    2009 Year、2014 Year、2021 Year
    11 1994 西藏自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region to implement the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    2001年、2007年、2010年、2015年
    2001 Year、2007 Year、2010 Year、2015 Year
    12 1998 内蒙古自治区草原管理条例实施细则
    Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Regulations on Grassland Management in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    2006年
    2006 Year
    13 1999 内蒙古自治区基本草原保护条例
    Regulations on the Protection of Basic Grasslands in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    2010年、2011年、2016年
    2010 Year、2011 Year、2016 Year
    14 2007 陕西省封山禁牧条例
    Regulations of Shaanxi Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding
    2019年
    2019 Year
    15 2007 山西省封山禁牧办法
    Measures of Shanxi Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding
    16 2009 辽宁省草原管理实施办法
    Measures for the Implementation of Grassland Management in Liaoning Province
    2011年、2014年、2016年、2017年、2021年
    2011 Year、2014 Year、2016 Year、2017 Year、2021 Year
    17 2011 宁夏回族自治区禁牧封育条例
    Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Prohibition of Herding and Enclosure
    18 2013 吉林省封山禁牧管理办法
    Administrative Measures of Jilin Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding
    19 2013 甘肃省草原禁牧办法
    Measures of Gansu Province on Prohibition of Pasture on Grassland
    20 2021 内蒙古自治区草畜平衡和禁牧休牧条例
    Regulations of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on Grass-Animal Balance and Prohibition of Grazing
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  2009–2018年各违法行为类型和数量统计表

    Table 2.  Statistics of various types and the number of illegal activities from 2009 to 2018

    违法行为类型
    Types of violations
    年份 Year
    2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
    违反草原禁牧休牧规定案件
    Cases of violation of the regulations on
    prohibition of grazing on the grassland
    22 853 15 580 13 272 15 313 15 675 14 899 12 822 1 1828 10 772 6 216
    违反草畜平衡规定案件
    Violation of grass-livestock balance
    regulations
    1 978 739 541 909 890 1 013 1 181 1 029 1 261 344
    非法开垦草原案件
    Cases of illegal reclamation of grassland
    2 456 2 218 2 432 1 755 1 384 1 910 1 663 1 656 836 785
    非法征收征用使用草原案件
    Cases of illegal expropriation,
    expropriation and use of grassland
    90 98 81 37 159 118 96 160 571 512
    非法临时占用使用草原案件
    Cases of illegal temporary occupation and
    use of grassland
    377 313 376 170 257 191 163 162 158 178
    非法采集草原野生植物案件
    Illegal collection of wild plants in the
    grassland
    436 1 306 310 248 438 527 794 643 58 59
    买卖或者非法流转草原案件
    Cases of buying, selling or illegally
    circulating in the grassland
    33 20 31 29 19 26 28 7 3 16
    其他案件
    Other cases
    340 100 131 126 79 43 124 195 65 54
    小计
    Subtotal
    28 563 20 374 17 174 18 587 18 901 18 727 16 871 15 680 13 724 8 164
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  2009 – 2018年违法行为破坏的草原面积

    Table 3.  The area of grassland destroyed by illegal activities from 2009 to 2018

    hm2
    违法行为类型
    Types of violations
    年份 Year
    2009201020112012201320142015201620172018
    非法开垦草原案件
    Cases of illegal reclamation
    of grassland
    10 946.67 10 026.67 9 626.67 6 040.00 11 506.67 19 026.67 10 746.67 5 706.67 5 140.00 3 406.67
    非法征收征用使用草原案件
    Cases of illegal expropriation
    and use of grassland
    1 613.33 1 013.33 1 340.00 646.67 2 820.00 1 380.00 940.00 3 026.67 2 040.00 3 860.00
    非法临时占用使用草原案件
    Cases of illegal temporary
    occupation and use of
    grassland
    1 093.33 4 526.67 1 153.33 960.00 986.67 513.33 340.00 426.67 366.67 253.33
    买卖或者非法流转草原案件
    Cases of buying, selling,
    or illegally circulating in
    the grassland
    8 606.67 1 993.33 4 840.00 7 180.00 3 940.00 1 220.00 1 833.33
    其他案件
    Other cases
    46.67
    小计
    Subtotal
    22 260.00 17 560.00 16 960.00 14 826.67 19 253.33 22 140.00 13 860.00 9 160.00 7 546.67 7 553.33
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4  禁牧休牧类违法行为的法律责任

    Table 4.  Legal responsibilities for prohibiting illegal activities of grazing and rest grazing

    法律法规
    Laws and regulations
    法律责任
    Legal liability
    草原法
    Grassland Law

    None
    内蒙古自治区草原管理条例
    Regulations of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on Grassland Management
    警告;每羊单位5元以上10元以下的罚款。
    Warning: a fine of more than 5 yuan but less than 10 yuan per sheep unit.
    内蒙古自治区基本草原保护条例
    Regulations on the Protection of Basic Grasslands in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    警告;每羊单位30元的罚款。
    Warning: a fine of 30 yuan per sheep unit.
    内蒙古自治区草畜平衡和禁牧休牧条例
    Regulations of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on Grass-Animal Balance and Prohibition of Grazing
    责令改正,每羊单位120元的罚款。
    Order correction; a fine of 120 yuan per sheep unit.
    宁夏回族自治区草原管理条例
    Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Grassland Management
    警告;每羊单位5元以上30元以下的罚款;
    无法确定数量的,100元以上2 000元以下的罚款。
    Warning;a fine of more than 5 yuan but less than 30 yuan per sheep unit;
    uncertain amount, a fine of more than 100 yuan but less than 2 000 yuan.
    宁夏回族自治区禁牧封育条例
    Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Prohibition of Herding and Enclosure
    责令改正,给予警告,每羊单位5元以上30元以的下罚款;
    责令补种毁坏株数1倍以上3倍以下的树木。
    Order correction, warning, a fine of more than 5 yuan but less than 30 yuan per sheep unit; order to replant 1 to 3 times more than the number of destroyed trees.
    黑龙江省草原条例
    Regulations of Heilongjiang Province on Grassland
    责令停放;每次每羊单位10元的罚款。
    Ordered to park; a fine of 10 yuan per sheep unit each time.
    新疆维吾尔自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    责令改正;每只(头)单位处5元以下的罚款。
    Order correction; a fine of less than 5 yuan per unit (head).
    甘肃省草原条例
    Regulations of Gansu Province on Grassland
    责令改正;每羊单位10元以下的罚款。
    Order correction; a fine of less than 10 yuan per sheep unit.
    陕西省封山禁牧条例
    Regulations of Shaanxi Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding
    责令改正,每只(头) 25以上50元以下的处以罚款;
    情节严重,不听劝阻,继续实施或者3次以上违法放牧,屡教不改的,
    按每只(头)单位50以上200元以下的处以罚款。
    Order correction, a fine of more than 25 yuan but less than 50 yuan for each (head);
    If the circumstances are serious, and illegal grazing is continuously done, more than 3 times, without dissuasion, a fine of more than 50 yuan but less than 200 yuan per unit (head) is imposed.
    山西省封山禁牧办法
    Measures of Shanxi Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding
    责令停止放牧,处50元以上100元以下的罚款。
    Order to stop grazing; impose a fine of 50 yuan up to 100 yuan.
    吉林省封山禁牧管理办法
    Administrative Measures of Jilin Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding
    责令改正,处100元以上500元以下的罚款;
    损毁林草植被严重的,处200元以上1 000元以下的罚款。
    Order correction; impose a fine of more than 100 yuan but less than 500 yuan;
    If there is serious damage to forest and grass vegetation, a fine of more than 200 yuan but less than 1 000 yuan is imposed.
    未作规定:贵州省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》暂行办法、青海省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、四川省《中华人民共和国草原法》实施办法、西藏自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、辽宁省草原管理实施办法。
    Not specified: Interim Measures of the Guizhou Province for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures of the Qinghai Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures for
    the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China” in Sichuan Province, Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region to implement the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures for the Implementation of Grassland Management in Liaoning Province.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 5  非法临时占用使用草原违法行为的法律责任

    Table 5.  Legal liabilities for illegal temporary occupation of grassland

    法律法规
    Laws and regulations
    具体行为
    Specific behavior
    法律责任
    Legal liability
    草原法
    Grassland Law
    在草原上进行采土、采砂、采石等活动
    Excavating soil, sand, quarrying, and other activities on the grassland
    责令停止,限期恢复;
    没收非法财产和违法所得,处1倍以上2倍以下罚款;
    无违法所得时,处2万元以下罚款。
    Order to stop and resume within a time limit;
    Confiscation of illegal property and illegal income, impose a fine of 1 to 2 times the amount of illegal income;
    If there is no illegal income, a fine of less than 20 000 yuan shall be imposed.
    在草原上开展经营性旅游活动
    Carrying out business tourism activities on the grassland
    责令停止,限期恢复;
    没收违法所得,处违法所得1倍以上2倍以下罚款;
    无违法所得,草原破坏前3年平均产值6倍以上12倍以下的罚款。
    Order to stop and resume within a time limit;
    Confiscation of illegal income and a fine of 1 to 2 times the amount of illegal income;
    No illegal income, fines of 6 to 12 times the average output value of the previous 3 years for grassland damage.
    未按确认的行驶区域、路线行驶破坏草原
    Failure to follow the confirmed driving area and route to damage the grassland
    责令停止,限期恢复;
    草原破坏前3年平均产值3倍以上9倍以下的罚款。
    Order to stop and resume within a time limit;
    A fine of more than 3 times and less than 9 times the average output value of the grassland in the previous 3 years.
    在临时占用的草原上修建永久性建筑物、构筑物
    Constructing permanent buildings and structures on temporarily occupied grasslands
    责令限期拆除。
    Order to remove within a time limit.
    西藏自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region to implement the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    在草原上进行采土、采砂、采石等活动
    Excavating soil, sand, quarrying, and other activities on the grassland
    责令停止,限期恢复;
    没收非法财产和违法所得,处1倍以上2倍以下罚款;
    无违法所得时,处1万元以上2万元以下罚款。
    Order to stop and resume within a time limit;
    Confiscating illegal property and illegal income, impose a fine 1 to 2 times the income;
    If there is no illegal income, a fine of 10 000 to 20 000 yuan is imposed.
    新疆维吾尔自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    机动车离开固定路线行驶,碾压草原
    A motor vehicle drives off a fixed route, crushing the grassland
    处1 000元以上5 000元以下的罚款。
    A fine of not less than 1 000 yuan but not more than
    5 000 yuan shall be imposed.
    未作规定或同《草原法》规定:内蒙古自治区草原管理条例、宁夏回族自治区草原管理条例、黑龙江省草原条例、贵州省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》暂行办法、吉林省草原管理条例、甘肃省草原条例、青海省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、四川省《中华人民共和国草原法》实施办法、陕西省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、辽宁省草原管理实施办法。
    部分一致:新疆维吾尔自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、西藏自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法。
    No provision or the same as the provisions of the Grassland Law: Regulations of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on Grassland Management, Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Grassland Management, Regulations of Heilongjiang Province on Grassland, Interim Measures of the Guizhou Province for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Regulations of Jilin Province on Grassland Management, Regulations of Gansu Province on Grassland, Measures of the Qinghai Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China” in Sichuan Province, Measures of Shaanxi Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures for the Implementation of Grassland Management in Liaoning Province.
    Partially consistent: Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region to implement the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 6  非法开垦草原违法行为的法律责任

    Table 6.  Legal liability for illegal reclamation of grassland

    法律法规
    Laws and regulations
    法律责任
    Legal liability
    草原法
    Grassland Law
    责令停止,限期恢复;
    没收非法财物和违法所得,处1倍以上5倍以下罚款;
    无违法所得,处5万元以下的罚款。
    Order to stop and resume within a time limit;
    Confiscating illegal property and illegal gains, imposing a fine of 1 to 5 times the gain;
    If there is no illegal income, a penalty of less than 50 000 yuan is imposed.
    内蒙古自治区基本草原保护条例
    Regulations on the Protection of Basic Grasslands in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    3倍以上5倍以下的罚款;
    无违法所得的,处5千元以上5万元以下的罚款。
    Fines of more than 3 times but less than 5 times;
    If there is no illegal income, the penalty shall not be less than 5 000 yuan but not more than 50 000 yuan.
    黑龙江省草原条例
    Regulations of Heilongjiang Province on Grassland
    处1倍以上5倍以下的罚款;
    无违法所得,处每平方米2元以上3元以下,最高处5万元以下的罚款。
    Impose a fine of not less than 1 time but not more than 5 times;
    If there is no illegal income, the penalty is between 2 and 3 yuan per square meter, and the maximum penalty is 50 000 yuan.
    辽宁省草原管理实施办法
    Measures for the Implementation of Grassland Management in Liaoning Province
    限期恢复,没收非法财物和违法所得,处1倍以上5倍以下的罚款;
    无违法所得的,按开垦面积每公顷(含不足1公顷)处5 000元以上1万元以下、最高不超过5万元的罚款。
    Resume within a time limit, confiscate illegal property and illegal income, and impose a fine of more than 1 time and less than 5 times;
    If there is no illegal income, a fine of more than 5 000 yuan but less than 10 000 yuan per hectare (including less than 1 hectare) of cultivated area shall be imposed, with a maximum fine of not more than 50 000 yuan.
    吉林省草原管理条例
    Regulations of Jilin Province on Grassland Management
    责令停止,限期恢复;
    情节严重的,1亩处50元以上100元以下(1公顷处750元以上1500元以下)的罚款。
    Order to stop and resume within a time limit;
    If the circumstances are serious, a fine of not less than 50 yuan but not more than 100 yuan per mu shall be imposed (1 hectare is subject to a fine of not less than 750 yuan but not more than 1 500 yuan).
    未作规定或同《草原法》规定:宁夏回族自治区草原管理条例、新疆维吾尔自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、贵州省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》暂行办法、甘肃省草原条例、青海省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、四川省《中华人民共和国草原法》实施办法、西藏自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、陕西省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法、山西省封山禁牧办法。
    No provision or the same as the provisions of the Grassland Law: Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Grassland Management, Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Interim Measures of the Guizhou Province for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Regulations of Gansu Province on Grassland, Measures of the Qinghai Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China” in Sichuan Province, Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region to implement the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures of Shaanxi Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”, Measures of Shanxi Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 7  违反草畜平衡类违法行为的法律责任

    Table 7.   Legal responsibilities for violations of grass-livestock balance violations

    法律法规
    Laws and regulations
    法律责任
    Legal liability
    草原法
    Grassland Law
    授权省、自治区、直辖市人大或其常委会作出具体规定。
    Authorize the people’s congresses of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government or their standing committees to make specific regulations.
    内蒙古自治区草原管理条例
    Regulations of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on Grassland Management
    警告,限期改正;每羊单位30元的罚款。
    Warning, correction within a time limit; a fine of 30 yuan per sheep unit.
    拒不签订草畜平衡责任书,处500元以下的罚款。
    Refusal to sign the grass-livestock balance responsibility letter and impose a fine of less than 500 yuan.
    内蒙古自治区基本草原保护条例
    Regulations on the Protection of Basic Grasslands in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    每羊单位100元的罚款。
    100 yuan per sheep unit.
    内蒙古自治区草畜平衡和禁牧休牧条例
    Regulations of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on Grass-Animal Balance and Prohibition of Grazing
    责令限期改正;逾期不改正的,处每羊单位100元的罚款。
    Orders to make corrections within a time limit; if they fail to make corrections within the time limit, a fine of 100 yuan per sheep unit shall be imposed.
    宁夏宁夏回族自治区草原管理条例
    Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Grassland Management
    责令改正;每羊单位10元以上30元以下的罚款。
    Order to make corrections; a fine of not less than 10 yuan and not more than 30 yuan per sheep unit.
    黑龙江省草原条例
    Regulations of Heilongjiang Province on Grassland
    每次每羊单位10元的罚款。
    10 yuan per sheep unit each time.
    新疆维吾尔自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the "Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China"
    责令改正;每只(头)单位处50元以下的罚款。
    Order to make corrections; each (head) unit shall be fined less than 50 yuan.
    吉林省草原管理条例
    Regulations of Jilin Province on Grassland Management
    按羊单位1至2元的管理费。
    1 to 2 yuan management fee per sheep unit.
    青海省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Qinghai Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    陕西省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of Shaanxi Province for the Implementation of the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    超载不足30%,每羊单位10元;超载30%~50%,每羊单位20元;超载50%以上,每羊单位30元。
    Overload of less than 30%, 10 yuan per sheep unit;
    30%~50% overload, 20 yuan per sheep unit;
    overload of more than 50%, 30 yuan per sheep unit.
    甘肃省草原条例
    Regulations of Gansu Province on Grassland
    超载不足30%,每羊单位10元;超载31%~50%,每羊单位20元;超载50%以上,每羊单位30元。
    Overload of less than 30%, 10 yuan per sheep unit; Overload 31%~50%, 20 yuan per sheep unit; overload of more than 50%, 30 yuan per sheep unit.
    拒不签订草畜平衡责任书,处500元以下的罚款。
    Refusal to sign the grass-livestock balance responsibility letter and impose a fine of less than 500 yuan.
    四川省《中华人民共和国草原法》实施办法
    Measures of the Implementation for the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China” in Sichuan Province
    超载10%~30%,每羊单位10元;超载31%~50%,每羊单位15元;超载50%以上,每羊单位30元。
    Overload of 10%~30%, 10 yuan per sheep unit; overload of 31%~50%, 15 yuan per sheep unit; overload of more than 50%, 30 yuan per sheep unit.
    西藏自治区实施《中华人民共和国草原法》办法
    Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region to implement the “Grassland Law of the People’s Republic of China”
    警告
    Warn
    无规定:贵州省实施《中华人民共和国草原法》暂行办法、山西省封山禁牧办法、辽宁省草原管理实施办法。
    No regulations: Interim Measures of the Guizhou Province for the Implementation of the “Prairie Law of the People’s Republic of China”,Measures of Shanxi Province on Closing Mountains and Prohibiting Herding, Regulations of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region on Prohibition of Herding and Enclosure.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 通讯作者:  李媛辉, xzf100083@163.com
  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-20
  • 接受日期:  2022-02-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-29
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-15
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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