凯时66

欢迎访问 草业科学,今天是

3种粗饲料配比巨菌草对饲粮组合效应的影响

郝生燕 王国栋 顾娴 邹凤轩 董俊 杨发荣 潘发明 刘佳

引用本文: 郝生燕,王国栋,顾娴,邹凤轩,董俊,杨发荣,潘发明,刘佳. 3种粗饲料配比巨菌草对饲粮组合效应的影响. 草业科学, 2022, 39(4): 1-11 doi: shu
Citation:  HAO S Y, WANG G D, GU X, ZHOU F X, DONG J, YANG F R, PAN F M, LIU G. Associative effects of diets with different proportions of three types of roughage and . Pratacultural Science, 2022, 39(4): 1-11 doi: shu

3种粗饲料配比巨菌草对饲粮组合效应的影响

    作者简介: 郝生燕(1985-),女,山西阳高人,助理研究员,硕士,研究方向为饲草料的开发与利用。E-mail: haoshengyan_happy@126.com
    通讯作者: 王国栋(1982-),男,甘肃兰州人,助理研究员,硕士,研究方向为牧草的引种及栽培。E-mail: 93053048@qq.com
  • 基金项目: 甘肃省农业科学院科研条件建设及成果转化项目(中青年/博士基金)(2020GAAS36);甘肃省农科院重点研发项目(2020GAAS22);甘肃省青年科技基金项目(20JR5RA102)

摘要: 本试验旨在探讨玉米(Zea may)秸秆、小麦(Triticum aestivum)秸秆、苜蓿(Medicago sativa)干草配比巨菌草(Pennisetum giganteum)对饲粮组合效应的影响。试验利用体外发酵法测定在精粗比为40 ꞉ 60时,精料 ꞉ 玉米秸秆(小麦秸秆或苜蓿干草) ꞉ 巨菌草比例分别为40 ꞉ 60 ꞉ 0、40 ꞉ 50 ꞉ 10、40 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 20、40 ꞉ 30 ꞉ 30、40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40、40 ꞉ 10 ꞉ 50、40 ꞉ 0 ꞉ 60的21种饲料组合及5种单一原料(精料、玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆、苜蓿干草、巨菌草)分别培养2、4、6、8、12、24、36、48 h并计算其产气量,培养结束后的上清液用于pH、氨态氮和总挥发性脂肪酸含量的测定,发酵后的残渣用于干物质降解率的测定,并计算各指标的单项组合效应指数和多效组合效应指数。从单一原料发酵48 h结果来看,产气量为:精料 > 苜蓿干草 > 小麦秸秆 > 巨菌草 > 玉米秸秆;从组合类型来看,各个时间段的平均产气量为:精料 + 苜蓿干草 + 巨菌草组合 > 精料 + 小麦秸秆 + 巨菌草组合 > 精料 + 玉米秸秆 + 巨菌草组合。精料 + 苜蓿干草 + 巨菌草组合类型中,发酵12 h时,A6P0、A5P1、A4P2组产气量显著大于A3P3、A1P5、A0P6组(P < 0.05),表现为苜蓿干草比例越高,巨菌草比例越低,产气量越高;精料 + 小麦秸秆 + 巨菌草组合类型中,发酵12 h时,W3P3、W2P4、W1P5、W0P6组的产气量显著大于W6P0、W5P1、W4P2组(P < 0.05),表现为小麦秸秆比例越低,巨菌草比例越高,产气量越大。综上可见,精料 + 玉米秸秆 + 巨菌草组合中,比例为40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40时组合效果最优;精料 + 小麦秸秆 + 巨菌草组合中,比例为40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40时组合效果最优;精料 + 苜蓿干草 + 巨菌草组合中,比例为40 ꞉ 50 ꞉ 10时产生正组合效应更好。

English

    1. [1]

      吴璇, 张正帆, 郭春华, 李鑫, 刘尚群.  杂交构树、玉米秸秆青贮和燕麦青干草不同配比的体外消化特性及组合效应[J]. 中国饲料, 2020, (1): 29-35.
      WU X, ZHANG Z F, GUO C H, LI X, LIU S Q.  In vitro digestion characteristics and combined effects of different ratios of Hybrid broussonetiapapyrifera Linn. , corn stalk silage and oat green hay[J]. China Feed, 2020, (1): 29-35.

    2. [2]

      刘丽英, 王志军, 尹强, 孙林, 成启明, 范文强, 刘亚红, 贾玉山.  3种饲草不同配比的体外消化特性及组合效应分析[J]. 畜牧兽医学报, 2017, 48(6): 1066-1075. doi:
      LIU L Y, WANG Z J, YIN Q, SUN L, CHENG Q M, FAN W Q, LIU Y H, JIA Y S.  Research on the in vitro digestibility and associative effects of three forage with different proportion[J]. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 2017, 48(6): 1066-1075. doi:

    3. [3]

      卢德勋.  饲料的组合效应[J]. 北京: 中国农业出版社, 2000, (): 289-294.
      LU D X.  The Associative Effect of Feed[J]. Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 2000, (): 289-294.

    4. [4]

      李海庆, 王萌, 周玉香.  体外产气法评估荞麦秸秆、油菜、苜蓿干草和玉米青贮的组合效应[J]. 饲料工业, 2019, 40(9): 33-38.
      LI H Q, WANG M, ZHOU Y X.  Assessment of combined effects of buckwheat straw, rape, alfalfa hay and corn silage by in vitro gas production method[J]. Feed Industry, 2019, 40(9): 33-38.

    5. [5]

      李蓓蓓, 李秋凤, 曹玉凤, 李建国, 高艳霞, 岳康宁, 冯建芳, 杨志林.  利用体外法研究精料、玉米秸秆青贮与谷草的组合效应[J]. 畜牧与兽医, 2017, 49(11): 36-41.
      LI B B, LI Q F, CAO Y F, LI J G, GAO Y X, YUE K N, FENG J F, YANG Z L.  Associative effects between concentrate, corn straw silage and millet straw in vitro[J]. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, 2017, 49(11): 36-41.

    6. [6]

      TAGLIAPIETRA F, CATTANI M, GUADAGNIN M, HADDI M L, SULAS L, MURESU R, SQUARTINI A, SCHIAVON S, BAILONI L.  Associative effects of poor-quality forages combined with food industry by-products determined in vitro with an automated gas-production system[J]. Animal Production Science, 2015, 55(): 1117-1122. doi:

    7. [7]

      张一帆, 李妍, 刘涛, 郑玉琳, 曹玉凤, 高艳霞, 张秀江, 刘泽, 李秋凤, 李建国.  玉米秸秆青贮、羊草、燕麦草与精饲料组合效应的研究[J]. 动物营养学报, 2019, 31(8): 3853-3862.
      ZHANG Y F, LI Y, LIU T, ZHENG Y L, CAO Y F, GAO Y X, ZHANG X J, LIU Z, LI Q F, LI J G.  Combined effect of corn straw silage, chinese wildrye, oat grass and concentrate[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2019, 31(8): 3853-3862.

    8. [8]

      宋福超, 权金鹏, 甘辉林, 马垭杰, 王鹏.  河西冷凉区巨菌草引进种植适宜性研究[J]. 中国牛业科学, 2016, 42(6): 41-44. doi:
      SONG F C, QUAN J P, GAN H L, MA Y J, WANG P.  The study of the planting suitability of jujun grass introduction in Hexi cold district[J]. Chinese Cattle Science, 2016, 42(6): 41-44. doi:

    9. [9]

      王小安, 刘荣清, 师立伟, 周兴德.  巨菌草塑料大棚多层覆盖越冬保种育苗技术[J]. 甘肃农业科技, 2020, (8): 85-87. doi:
      WANG X A, LIU R Q, SHI L W, ZHOU X D.  Seedling technology of overwintering seed conservation in mycelial plastic greenhouse with multi-layer covering[J]. Gansu Agricultural Science and Technology, 2020, (8): 85-87. doi:

    10. [10]

      王国栋, 董俊, 顾娴, 邹凤轩, 郝生燕, 杨发荣.  不同比例巨菌草青贮对肉羊生长性能的影响[J]. 饲料研究, 2021, 44(6): 21-23.
      WANG G D, DONG J, GU X, ZOU F X, HAO S Y, YANG F R.  Effect of different proportion of Puelia silage on growth performance of mutton sheep[J]. Feed Research, 2021, 44(6): 21-23.

    11. [11]

      MENKE K H, STEINGASS H E.  Stimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using tureen fluid[J]. Research Gate, 1988, 28(): 7-55.

    12. [12]

      周瑞, 刘立山, 吴建平, 韦胜, 郎侠, 王彩莲.  牛至精油对绵羊瘤胃体外养分降解率、发酵特性及CH4产量的影响[J]. 草业学报, 2019, 28(11): 168-176. doi:
      ZHOU R, LIU L S, WU J P, WEI S, LANG X, WANG C L.  Effects of oregano essential oil on nutrient degradability, rumen fermentation, and CH4 production in sheep[J]. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 2019, 28(11): 168-176. doi:

    13. [13]

      张丽英.  饲料分析及饲料质量检测技术(第3版)[J]. 北京: 中国农业大学出版社, 2007, (): 49-78.
      ZHANG L Y.  Feed Analysis and Feed Quality Detection Technology (3rd Edition)[J]. Beijing: China Agricultural University Press, 2007, (): 49-78.

    14. [14]

      BRODERICK G A, KANG J H.  Automated simultaneous dermination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media[J]. Journal of Dairy Science, 1980, 63(1): 64-75. doi:

    15. [15]

      ZHOU Z, MENG Q, YU Z.  Effect of methanogenic inhibitors on methane production and abundances of methanogens and cellulolytic bacteria in vitro ruminal cultures[J]. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2011, 77(8): 2634-2639. doi:

    16. [16]

      王旭. 利用GI技术对粗饲料进行科学搭配及绵羊日粮配方系统优化技术研究. 呼和浩特: 内蒙古农业大学硕士学位论文, 2003.
      WANG X. A technique for formulation of mixed forages by grading index and systematic optimization of sheep ration based on the technique. Master Thesis. Hohhot: Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 2003.

    17. [17]

      唐德富, 袁玖, 王彦乾, 王燕娜, 王娟丽, 刘自强, 寇伟, 崔仲勇, 张泽岩, 赵祥民, 万欣杰.  玉米芯与苜蓿、精料配比对饲粮组合效应的影响[J]. 草业学报, 2019, 28(6): 137-147. doi:
      TANG D F, YUAN J, WANG Y Q, WANG Y N, WANG J L, LIU Z Q, KOU W, CUI Z Y, ZHANG Z Y, ZHAO X M, WAN X J.  Evaluation using a gas production technique in vitro of associative effects on digestibility of corn cob, alfalfa and concentrate in mixed rations[J]. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 2019, 28(6): 137-147. doi:

    18. [18]

      郝小燕, 高红, 王馨影, 张广宁, 孙凯晶, 刘岩, 张永根.  玉米纤维饲料、青贮玉米和苜蓿干草间组合效应研究[J]. 东北农业大学学报, 2017, 48(8): 25-32. doi:
      HAO X Y, GAO H, WANG X Y, ZHANG G N, SUN K J, LIU Y, ZHANG Y G.  Study on associative effects of dry corn gluten feed, corn silage and alfalfa hay[J]. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 2017, 48(8): 25-32. doi:

    19. [19]

      CATON J S, DHUYVETTER D V.  Influence of energy supplementation on grazing ruminants: requirements and responses[J]. Jornal of Animal Science, 1997, 75(2): 533-542. doi:

    20. [20]

      夏洪泽, 张琳琳, 王银梦, 郝文君, 崔占鸿, 孙璐, 刘书杰.  不同分级指数粗饲料组合对牦牛瘤胃体外发酵特性的影响[J]. 动物营养学报, 2020, 32(6): 2710-2721. doi:
      XIA H Z, ZHANG L L, WANG Y M, HAO W J, CUI Z H, SUN L, LIU S J.  Effects of different graded indexes combined forage on yak rumen fermentation characteristics in vitro[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2020, 32(6): 2710-2721. doi:

    21. [21]

      崔占鸿, 刘书杰, 郝力壮, 张晓卫, 赵月平.  体外产气法评价青海高原反刍家畜常用粗饲料组合效应[J]. 草业科学, 2011, 28(10): 1894-1900.
      CUI Z H, LIU S J, HAO L Z, ZHANG X W, ZHAO Y P.  Evaluation of associate effects of ruminants forages in the Qinghai plateau using in vitro gas production technique[J]. Pratacultural Science, 2011, 28(10): 1894-1900.

    22. [22]

      NSAHLAI I V, SIAW D E K A, OSUJI P O.  The relationships between gas production and chemical composition of 23 browses of the Genus sesbania[J]. Journal Science of Food Agriculture, 1994, 65(1): 13-20. doi:

    23. [23]

      芦岩, 张伶俐, 罗远琴, 魏利, 薛雪, 孙新文, 向春和, 毛胜勇, 王新峰, 张文举.  不同比例棉秆和甜菜渣混合发酵产物的体外产气特性及发酵参数的研究[J]. 草业学报, 2020, 29(5): 58-66. doi:
      LU Y, ZHANG L L, LUO Y Q, WEI L, XUE X, SUN X W, XIANG C H, MAO S Y, WANG X F, ZHANG W J.  In vitro gas production characteristics and fermentation parameters of feedstuffs with varying proportions of cotton stalks and beet pulp[J]. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 2020, 29(5): 58-66. doi:

    24. [24]

      牛骁麟, 郭涛, 周文静, 郭龙, 李飞, 李发弟.  日粮粗蛋白质水平对育肥湖羊瘤胃微生物组成和发酵参数的影响[J]. 草业科学, 2020, 37(5): 975-983. doi:
      NIU X L, GUO T, ZHOU W J, GUO L, LI F, LI F D.  Effect of dietary crude protein level on rumen microbial composition and the fermentation parameters of finishing Hu lambs[J]. Paracultural Science, 2020, 37(5): 975-983. doi:

    25. [25]

      ZHANG J K, LIU J X.  Use of in vitro gas production to evaluate associative effects in gas production of rice straw supplemented with lucerne[J]. Journal of Animal and Feed Science, 2007, 16(2): 156-160.

    26. [26]

      周芯宇, 王之盛, 祝伊枭, 代秦丹, 彭全辉, 邹华围, 薛白, 王立志.  不同粗饲料组合对酒糟型饲粮体外发酵参数影响的研究[J]. 动物营养学报, 2020, 32(4): 1936-1945. doi:
      ZHOU X Y, WANG Z S, ZHU Y X, DAI Q D, PENG Q H, ZOU H W, XUE B, WANG L Z.  Effects of different roughage combinations on fermentation parameters of distiller's drains diet in vitro[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2020, 32(4): 1936-1945. doi:

    27. [27]

      刘哲, 张昌吉, 郝正里, 李发弟.  饲喂含不同秸秆的全日粮颗粒料对绵羊瘤胃及血液代谢参数的影响[J]. 中国饲料, 2005, (11): 12-14. doi:
      LIU Z, ZHANG C J, HAO Z L, LI F D.  Effects of total pellet feed diet with different straw on the rumen and blood metabolism parameters of sheep[J]. China Feed, 2005, (11): 12-14. doi:

    28. [28]

      袁玖, 唐德富, 万欣杰, 寇伟, 刘自强, 赵祥民, 张泽岩, 王燕娜, 王娟丽, 崔仲勇.  火龙果皮与苜蓿、精料配比对饲料组合效应的研究[J]. 动物营养学报, 2019, 31(7): 3398-3410. doi:
      YUAN J, TANG D F, WAN X J, KOU W, LIU Z Q, ZHAO X M, ZHANG Z Y, WANG Y N, WANG J L, CUI Z Y.  Study on associative effects of proportion of pitaya peel, alfalfa and concentrate[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2019, 31(7): 3398-3410. doi:

    29. [29]

      张立涛, 刁其玉, 李艳玲.  中性洗涤纤维生理营养与需要量的研究进展[J]. 中国草食动物科学, 2013, 33(1): 57-61. doi:
      ZHANG L T, DIAO Q Y, LI Y L.  Recent advances in nutrition mechanism and requirement of neutral detergent fiber[J]. Chinese Herbivore Science, 2013, 33(1): 57-61. doi:

    30. [30]

      李玉帅, 吴森, 曹阳春, 咎林森.  日粮尿素添加水平对秦川肉牛瘤胃发酵性能的影响[J]. 家畜生态学报, 2017, (4): 38-43. doi:
      LI Y S, WU S, CAO Y C, JIU L S.  Effects of urea supplementation on rumen fermentation parameters of Qinchuan beef cattle[J]. Journal of Domestic Animal Ecology, 2017, (4): 38-43. doi:

    31. [31]

      CALSAMIGLIA S, FERRET A, DEVANT M.  Effects of pH and pH fluctuations on microbial fermentation and nutrient flow fromadual-flow continuous culturesystem[J]. Journal of Dairy Science, 2002, (85): 574-579.

    32. [32]

      CHEEMA A U, GLYEANl M L, CATON J S, FREEMAN A S.  Influence of protein levels and naloxone on intake, nitrogen metabolism and digestion kinetics in lambs fed oat hay or barley straw[J]. Small Ruminant Research, 1991, 5(7): 35-46.

    33. [33]

      冯仰廉.  反刍动物营养学[J]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2004, (): 335-336.
      FENG Y L.  Ruminant Nutrition[J]. Beijing: Science Press, 2004, (): 335-336.

    34. [34]

      梁婷玉, 郞侠, 吴建平, 王彩莲, 刘立山, 张瑞, 韦胜.  燕麦与苜蓿不同比例组合对驴盲肠体外发酵的影响[J]. 草业学报, 2019, 28(6): 185-195. doi:
      LIANG T Y, LANG X, WU J P, WANG C L, LIU L S, ZHANG R, WEI S.  Effects of different proportions of oat and alfalfa on in vitro fermentation in simulated donkey ceca[J]. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 2019, 28(6): 185-195. doi:

    35. [35]

      隋美霞, 刘海霞, 王宗伟, 牟晓玲, 刘大森.  体外法研究总挥发性脂肪酸和产气量与饲料营养成分的关系[J]. 中国饲料, 2009, (13): 28-30. doi:
      SUI M X, LIU H X, WANG Z W, MOU X L, LIU D S.  Relationship of total volatile fatty acids, gas production and feed nutrients in vitro[J]. China Feed, 2009, (13): 28-30. doi:

    36. [36]

      韩肖敏, 曹玉凤, 李秋凤, 高艳霞, 李妍, 李建国.  用体外产气法评价玉米秸秆、稻草、玉米秸秆青贮与精料的组合效应[J]. 动物营养学报, 2017, 29(2): 699-711. doi:
      HAN X M, CAO Y F, LI Q F, GAO Y X, LI Y, LI J G.  Associative effect of corn stalk silage and concentrate evaluated by gas production technique in vitro[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2017, 29(2): 699-711. doi:

    1. [1]

      夏洪泽郝文君崔占鸿刘书杰 . 不同分级指数苜蓿干草–小麦秸秆组合对牦牛瘤胃体外发酵的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    2. [2]

      王正文魏玉明杨发荣罗晶焦婷赵生国 . 不同日粮精粗比下藜麦秸秆与高粱秸秆的组合效应. 草业科学, doi: 

    3. [3]

      冉生斌刘建华 . 利用体外产气法评价玉米秸秆黄贮与甜菜块根组合效应. 草业科学, doi: 

    4. [4]

      成启明格根图项锴峰刘丽英范文强蔡曙光贾玉山 . 柠条与玉米秸秆混合微贮及其组合效应. 草业科学, doi: 

    5. [5]

      吴征敏凡超杰李龙文杨善雄刘娟王志敬吴浩浩赵志辉尹福泉 . 象草与皇竹草不同比例组合对山羊瘤胃体外发酵特性的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    6. [6]

      郭涛黄右琴兰贵生闫佰鹏李发弟李飞 . 利用近红外光谱技术分析玉米秸秆和小麦秸秆的营养成分. 草业科学, doi: 

    7. [7]

      张海龙赵芳芳左志马垭杰石斌刚王鹏张伟李少斌赵志东胡江 . 复合秸秆颗粒饲料生产工艺优化. 草业科学, doi: 

    8. [8]

      张吉鹍谷德平吴文旋李龙瑞邹庆华 . 稻草秸秆与苜蓿的日粮组合对山羊消化道各部位营养物质消化率的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    9. [9]

      张诗林芝余豪闯罗宗志庄益芬 . 酶制剂和绿汁发酵液对巨菌草青贮品质的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    10. [10]

      王红关皓陈明彭安琪李小梅李昌华李小铃刘卫国方萍闫艳红 . 收获期对玉米籽粒产量和秸秆青贮品质的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    11. [11]

      杨洪明王宇张轶凤李晗许宏杨王向明刘宇宸杨晓明齐智利 . 基于体外培养法研究不同GI指数的粗饲料与精饲料之间组合效应. 草业科学, doi: 

    12. [12]

      阴法庭张凤华 . 饲料油菜与玉米秸秆混合青贮营养品质. 草业科学, doi: 

    13. [13]

      冉福雷赵民焦婷程强赵生国高雪梅李昌宁 . 汽爆处理对玉米–小麦型混合秸秆营养品质的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    14. [14]

      杨道兰汪建旭冯炜弘张艳尹燕王永林 . 花椰菜茎叶与玉米秸秆的混贮品质. 草业科学, doi: 

    15. [15]

      陈继康董国云喻春明陈平高钢陈坤梅王晓飞朱爱国 . 苎麻与水稻/玉米秸秆混合青贮饲用价值评价. 草业科学, doi: 

    16. [16]

      冉福焦婷雷赵民高雪梅赵生国 . 不同蒸汽爆破条件对玉米秸秆饲用价值的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    17. [17]

      朱宝珍高强李飞李发弟 . 茴香秸秆替代玉米秸秆对湖羊瘤胃液挥发性脂肪酸、微生物区系和肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响. 草业科学, doi: 

    18. [18]

      李苏涛李妍张磊陈思齐韩雪林张娟苏德伟罗海凌周晶 . 基于实时荧光定量PCR筛选巨菌草内参基因. 草业科学, doi: 

    19. [19]

      尚校兰李宏宇杨伊婷梁菁菁 . 化学法和生物法制备巨菌草腐植酸的比较. 草业科学, doi: 

    20. [20]

      师静林占熺林冬梅苏德伟罗海凌林兴生林占森郑丹陈锦华姚俊新 .&nbsp;巨菌草纤维素的酶解条件. 草业科学,

  • 凯时66

    表 1  饲粮精粗料配比

    Table 1.  The formulation of mixed forages

    类型
    Type
    编号
    Group
    原料百分比
    Material
    proportion/%
    精料补充料 Concentrate CK1 100
    玉米秸秆 Corn straw CK2 100
    巨菌草
    Pennisetum giganteum
    CK3 100
    小麦秸秆 Wheat straw CK4 100
    苜蓿干草 Alfalfa hay CK5 100
    精料 + 玉米秸秆 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + corn straw + P. giganteum
    C6P0 40 ꞉ 60 ꞉ 0
    C5P1 40 ꞉ 50 ꞉ 10
    C4P2 40 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 20
    C3P3 40 ꞉ 30 ꞉ 30
    C2P4 40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40
    C1P5 40 ꞉ 10 ꞉ 50
    C0P6 40 ꞉ 0 ꞉ 60
    精料 + 小麦秸秆 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + wheat straw + P. giganteum
    W6P0 40 ꞉ 60 ꞉ 0
    W5P1 40 ꞉ 50 ꞉ 10
    W4P2 40 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 20
    W3P3 40 ꞉ 30 ꞉ 30
    W2P4 40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40
    W1P5 40 ꞉ 10 ꞉ 50
    W0P6 40 ꞉ 0 ꞉ 60
    精料 + 苜蓿干草 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + alfalfa hay + P. giganteum
    A6P0 40 ꞉ 60 ꞉ 0
    A5P1 40 ꞉ 50 ꞉ 10
    A4P2 40 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 20
    A3P3 40 ꞉ 30 ꞉ 30
    A2P4 40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40
    A1P5 40 ꞉ 10 ꞉ 50
    A0P6 40 ꞉ 0 ꞉ 60
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  精料补充料配方组成及营养水平(风干基础)

    Table 2.  Composition and nutrient levels of extract feed supplement (dry matter basis)

    原料
    Ingredient
    比例
    Proportion/%
    营养水平
    Nutritional level
    含量
    Content/%
    玉米 Corn 53.50 干物质 Dry matter 92.50
    麦麸 Wheat bran 10.00 粗蛋 Crude protein 22.00
    豆粕 Soybean meal 15.00 钙 Calcium 0.51
    油渣 Oil residue 15.00 总磷
    Total phosphorus
    0.47
    小苏打 NaHCO3 1.00
    食用盐 NaCl 1.50
    预混料 Premix 4.00
    合计 Total 100.00
     预混料为每千克饲粮提供 S 200 mg,Fe 25 mg,Zn 40 mg,Cu 8 mg;I 0.3 mg,Mn 40 mg,Se 0.2 mg,Co 0.1 mg,VA 940 IU,VD 50 IU,VE 20 IU。
     The premix provided the following per kg of diets: S 200 mg, Fe
    25 mg, Zn 40 mg, Cu 8 mg, I 0.3 mg, Mn 40 mg, Se 0.2 mg, Co
    0.1 mg, VA 940 IU, VD 50 IU, VE 20 IU.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  4种粗饲料营养成分(风干基础)

    Table 3.  The nutrient content of four forages (dry matter basis)

    类型
    Type
    干物质
    Dry
    matter
    粗蛋白
    Crude
    protein
    粗脂肪
    Ether
    extract
    中性洗涤纤维
    Neutral detergent
    fiber
    酸性洗涤纤维
    Acid detergent
    fiber
    粗灰分
    Crude
    ash

    Phosphorus
    巨菌草 P. giganteum 95.32 9.51 2.24 57.36 37.56 6.50 0.43
    玉米秸秆 Corn straw 96.24 6.47 2.06 59.48 40.16 11.76 0.37
    苜蓿干草 Alfalfa hay 96.09 18.75 3.35 35.01 27.42 9.08 0.44
    小麦秸秆 Wheat straw 95.56 5.01 1.75 69.99 47.44 5.68 0.44
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4  不同粗饲料组合对产气量的影响

    Table 4.  Effect of different ratios of roughage on gas production

    mL·g−1
    类型
    Type
    编号
    Group
    发酵时间 Fermentation time/h
    246 h812243648
    精料补充 Concentrate CK1 28.04 ± 6.06 69.40 ± 17.54 69.43 ± 17.54 86.15 ± 15.96ab 81.33 ± 14.85de 87.46 ± 11.77cde 91.23 ± 10.61 90.08 ± 9.73cde
    玉米秸秆 Corn straw CK2 26.02 ± 11.13 56.5 ± 22.17 56.58 ± 22.17 72.59 ± 19.58ab 51.30 ± 12.89e 64.01 ± 9.96e 72.04 ± 10.07 72.27 ± 9.99e
    巨菌草 P. giganteum CK3 32.07 ± 15.02 35.35 ± 16.42 35.36 ± 16.41 51.68 ± 15.45b 44.39 ± 4.35e 69.11 ± 6.92de 74.86 ± 7.63 75.64 ± 7.85e
    小麦秸秆 Wheat straw CK4 28.44 ± 14.19 33.10 ± 8.36 33.10 ± 8.35 54.50 ± 10.16b 52.88 ± 0.12e 73.24 ± 2.16cde 78.48 ± 2.29 78.91 ± 2.28de
    苜蓿干草 Alfalfa hay CK5 43.51 ± 12.91 48.69 ± 15.28 48.69 ± 15.28 76.20 ± 16.34ab 69.09 ± 3.77e 87.26 ± 5.44cde 90.77 ± 5.40 89.58 ± 5.40cde
    精料 + 玉米秸秆 +
    巨菌Concentrate + corn Corn
    straw + P. giganteum
    C6P0 28.54 ± 0.26 41.9 ± 0.76 41.97 ± 0.76 64.61 ± 1.62ab 73.88 ± 0.56e 85.36 ± 1.92cde 87.82 ± 2.47 90.47 ± 2.98cde
    C5P1 27.86 ± 2.28 41.15 ± 2.43 41.15 ± 2.42 62.06 ± 2.81ab 69.69 ± 2.73e 83.44 ± 3.71cde 86.59 ± 4.30 88.69 ± 3.76cde
    C4P2 26.13 ± 2.19 42.09 ± 2.19 42.09 ± 2.18 66.84 ± 2.74ab 78.78 ± 1.12e 91.58 ± 4.14bcde 95.51 ± 4.79 96.35 ± 4.02bcde
    C3P3 25.89 ± 1.53 41.04 ± 1.92 41.04 ± 1.92 63.33 ± 3.78ab 66.75 ± 2.16e 87.71 ± 6.75bcde 91.84 ± 6.39 93.05 ± 7.34cde
    C2P4 26.40 ± 2.47 43.28 ± 5.12 43.28 ± 5.12 69.83 ± 8.46ab 69.26 ± 0.22e 101.26 ± 15.60abcde 103.78 ± 17.82 106.91 ± 17.97abcde
    C1P5 29.08 ± 4.74 46.65 ± 8.87 46.65 ± 8.86 76.13 ± 14.33ab 69.69 ± 2.04e 109.49 ± 24.29abcde 113.97 ± 29.70 116.82 ± 29.75abcde
    C0P6 26.07 ± 6.95 44.0 ± 11.35 44.01 ± 11.34 74.64 ± 18.96ab 63.92 ± 2.16e 109.69 ± 29.42abcde 116.52 ± 32.63 118.16 ± 34.05abcde
    精料 + 小麦秸 +
    巨菌Concentrate + wheat Wheat
    straw + P. giganteum
    W6P0 28.39 ± 6.35 47.82 ± 10.43 47.82 ± 10.43 81.37 ± 17.66ab 73.28 ± 0.47e 117.78 ± 26.49abcde 120.79 ± 27.96 122.43 ± 29.18abcde
    W5P1 31.60 ± 5.28 51.95 ± 9.59 51.95 ± 9.58 85.49 ± 18.01ab 75.84 ± 1.01e 111.84 ± 20.41abcde 118.75 ± 23.57 121.42 ± 26.22abcde
    W4P2 26.22 ± 0.11 51.85 ± 10.89 51.85 ± 10.89 86.68 ± 19.99ab 63.71 ± 6.62e 103.94 ± 27.46abcde 108.61 ± 31.92 112.57 ± 34.31abcde
    W3P3 32.90 ± 6.18 76.44 ± 0.41 76.44 ± 0.41 124.59 ± 4.53ab 141.94 ± 3.55c 165.94 ± 18.20abcde 194.69 ± 13.68 198.18 ± 12.04abcde
    W2P4 47.18 ± 0.26 74.81 ± 1.03 74.81 ± 1.03 125.33 ± 5.06ab 143.13 ± 1.72bc 188.56 ± 15.56abcd 205.53 ± 17.06 217.44 ± 15.60abc
    W1P5 48.91 ± 1.09 73.83 ± 6.72 73.83 ± 6.71 134.03 ± 3.11ab 159.73 ± 3.07abc 197.10 ± 22.07abc 210.35 ± 21.30 212.52 ± 19.69abcd
    W0P6 47.27 ± 1.04 69.36 ± 5.99 69.36 ± 5.99 120.47 ± 3.23ab 141.94 ± 2.41c 178.87 ± 15.33abcde 196.43 ± 16.96 200.65 ± 14.87abcde
    精料 + 苜蓿干草 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + alfalfa
    hay + P. giganteum
    A6P0 55.82 ± 4.90 82.63 ± 13.80 82.63 ± 13.79 144.38 ± 22.64a 194.60 ± 6.39a 221.86 ± 39.11a 239.04 ± 41.49 242.03 ± 38.79a
    A5P1 54.40 ± 4.19 80.71 ± 13.68 80.71 ± 13.68 133.61 ± 21.86ab 183.39 ± 1.16a 193.43 ± 29.59abc 224.54 ± 36.03 229.83 ± 33.88ab
    A4P2 52.41 ± 5.10 76.71 ± 14.01 76.71 ± 14.00 127.93 ± 23.11ab 182.14 ± 6.40ab 211.37 ± 40.57ab 227.30 ± 44.43 231.43 ± 45.10ab
    A3P3 38.69 ± 9.16 63.32 ± 13.02 63.32 ± 13.02 98.61 ± 23.84ab 120.18 ± 6.23cd 161.38 ± 38.02abcde 175.59 ± 42.17 177.42 ± 42.81abcde
    A2P4 39.70 ± 8.75 79.66 ± 3.44 79.66 ± 3.44 110.75 ± 20.65ab 154.83 ± 6.40abc 176.15 ± 36.22abcde 181.28 ± 36.41 191.32 ± 37.51abcde
    A1P5 38.23 ± 1.05 53.80 ± 11.72 63.8067 ± 11.72 80.06 ± 3.50ab 95.94 ± 1.25e 106.72 ± 3.59abcde 153 ± 4.87 162.56 ± 5.4abcde
    A0P6 35.77 ± 8.11 85.37 ± 15.99 85.37 ± 15.98 97.08 ± 16.96ab 131.82 ± 7.21c 152.97 ± 32.93abcde 167.12 ± 37.29 168.70 ± 38.27abcde
     同列不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05),未标注字母或相同字母表示处理间差异不显著(P > 0.05);下表同。
     Different lowercase letters within the same column indicate significant differences among different treatments at the 0.05, no letters indicate no significant difference among different treatments
    at the 0.05; This is applicable for the following tables as well.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 5  不同粗饲料组合对48 h发酵瘤胃液发酵指标的影响

    Table 5.  Effects of different proportion of roughage on fermentation indexes of rumen fluid after 48 h fermentation

    类型
    Type
    编号
    Group
    pH氨态氮
    NH3-N/
    (mg·dL−1)
    干物质降解率
    Dry matter
    digestibility/%
    总挥发性脂肪酸
    Total volatile fatty
    acids/(mmol·L−1)
    玉米秸秆 Corn straw CK1 6.67 ± 0.02c 8.29 ± 0.38b 43.41 ± 3.60nm 40.12 ± 0.32q
    巨菌草P. giganteum CK2 6.67 ± 0.02c 8.07 ± 0.12b 47.30 ± 2.75kl 47.56 ± 1.38n
    小麦秸秆 Wheat straw CK3 6.58 ± 0.02cd 9.97 ± 0.13b 40.02 ± 0.09n 30.65 ± 1.45r
    苜蓿干草 Alfalfa hay CK4 6.68 ± 0.01c 8.94 ± 0.42b 50.65 ± 1.12j 54.46 ± 0.96hi
    精料 + 玉米秸秆 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + corn straw + P. giganteum
    C6P0 6.43 ± 0.01de 10.97 ± 1.27b 52.25 ± 0.71hi 49.56 ± 1.24m
    C5P1 6.51 ± 0.01de 19.48 ± 0.23ab 54.04 ± 0.84fgh 50.15 ± 1.30l
    C4P2 6.41 ± 0.01e 19.10 ± 0.61ab 54.35 ± 1.01fgh 50.43 ± 1.38l
    C3P3 6.42 ± 0.02e 16.59 ± 0.26b 55.86 ± 0.56def 53.46 ± 0.25ij
    C2P4 6.52 ± 0.01de 12.74 ± 2.21b 56.45 ± 1.01cde 59.12 ± 0.66ef
    C1P5 6.56 ± 0.02cde 9.43 ± 1.05b 56.25 ± 0.45cde 58.44 ± 0.78g
    C0P6 6.50 ± 0.02de 19.41 ± 2.02ab 52.35 ± 1.22hi 58.04 ± 0.89g
    精料 + 小麦秸秆 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + wheat straw + P. giganteum
    W6P0 6.94 ± 0.01b 10.08 ± 0.06b 52.59 ± 0.84hi 49.68 ± 0.46lm
    W5P1 6.98 ± 0.02ab 9.24 ± 0.02b 56.13 ± 1.22cde 52.14 ± 0.58jk
    W4P2 7.09 ± 0.08a 9.43 ± 0.61b 58.16 ± 0.97bc 58.69 ± 1.33g
    W3P3 6.96 ± 0.01ab 9.24 ± 0.19b 61.63 ± 1.11ab 62.15 ± 1.28cd
    W2P4 7.04 ± 0.01ab 18.49 ± 6.10ab 57.28 ± 0.81cd 68.54 ± 1.48a
    W1P5 7.09 ± 0.02a 9.24 ± 1.07ab 59.23 ± 0.76b 62.39 ± 1.56cd
    W0P6 7.01 ± 0.02ab 10.61 ± 0.55b 53.16 ± 1.51gh 53.65 ± 1.18ij
    精料 + 苜蓿干草 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + alfalfa hay + P. giganteum
    A6P0 7.05 ± 0.02ab 16.11 ± 1.01b 60.82 ± 0.25b 57.14 ± 0.58h
    A5P1 6.97 ± 0.01ab 17.54 ± 0.41b 63.12 ± 0.74a 57.36 ± 0.42h
    A4P2 6.93 ± 0.01b 18.25 ± 9.20ab 55.24 ± 1.43def 58.56 ± 0.69g
    A3P3 6.51 ± 0.02de 16.74 ± 1.66b 63.14 ± 1.54a 68.12 ± 1.46a
    A2P4 6.58 ± 0.06cd 19.70 ± 0.02a 60.25 ± 1.24b 65.23 ± 1.12b
    A1P5 6.52 ± 0.01de 19.29 ± 1.86ab 58.29 ± 1.35e 63.55 ± 0.76c
    A0P6 6.54 ± 0.01cde 11.31 ± 1.21b 56.48 ± 1.80cde 60.23 ± 0.23e
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 6  不同组合比例粗饲料组合效应

    Table 6.  Effects of different forage combinations

    类型
    Type
    编号
    Group
    单项组合效应 SFAEI多效组合效应
    MFAEI
    排序
    Ranking
    产气量
    Gas production
    干物质降解率
    Dry matter
    digestibility
    总挥发性脂肪酸
    Total volatile
    fatty acids
    氨态氮
    NH3-N
    精料 + 玉米秸秆 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + Corn
    straw + P. giganteum
    C6P0 0.15 ± 0.04e 0.06 ± 0.00jk 0.03 ± 0.00m 0.10 ± 0.00c 0.33 19
    C5P1 0.15 ± 0.05e 0.08 ± 0.01ghi 0.01 ± 0.00no 0.09 ± 0.00c 0.29 20
    C4P2 0.25 ± 0.00e 0.08 ± 0.01hi 0.00 ± 0.00o 0.09 ± 0.01c 0.42 16
    C3P3 0.13 ± 0.03e 0.10 ± 0.00efg 0.05 ± 0.00l 0.09 ± 0.00c 0.37 18
    C2P4 0.11 ± 0.03e 0.10 ± 0.00ef 0.13 ± 0.00j 0.09 ± 0.01c 0.42 15
    C1P5 0.08 ± 0.02e 0.09 ± 0.01fgh 0.11 ± 0.00k 0.09 ± 0.02c 0.38 17
    C0P6 0.05 ± 0.02e 0.01 ± 0.00m 0.10 ± 0.00k 0.11 ± 0.01c 0.26 21
    精料 + 小麦秸秆 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + Wheat
    straw + P. giganteum
    W6P0 0.10 ± 0.00e 0.10 ± 0.00ef 0.17 ± 0.01h 0.11 ± 0.02c 0.49 13
    W5P1 0.14 ± 0.01e 0.23 ± 0.00b 0.18 ± 0.00gh 0.11 ± 0.02c 0.66 11
    W4P2 0.14 ± 0.00e 0.19 ± 0.01c 0.28 ± 0.01d 0.10 ± 0.00c 0.71 12
    W3P3 1.49 ± 0.12c 0.24 ± 0.02b 0.31 ± 0.00c 0.15 ± 0.02b 2.18 7
    W2P4 2.17 ± 0.18a 0.06 ± 0.01ij 0.01 ± 0.00o 0.17 ± 0.02ab 2.40 4
    W1P5 1.96 ± 0.06ab 0.10 ± 0.00ef 0.03 ± 0.00mn 0.20 ± 0.02a 2.28 6
    W0P 1.66 ± 0.08bc 0.02 ± 0.00lm 0.02 ± 0.00mn 0.11 ± 0.02c 1.82 9
    精料 + 苜蓿干草 + 巨菌草
    Concentrate + Alfalfa
    hay + P. giganteum
    A6P0 1.79 ± 0.03abc 0.20 ± 0.01c 0.40 ± 0.00a 0.16 ± 0.01b 2.54 2
    A5P1 1.92 ± 0.02abc 0.29 ± 0.00a 0.23 ± 0.00f 0.19 ± 0.03a 2.63 1
    A4P2 2.15 ± 0.15a 0.04 ± 0.00kl 0.06 ± 0.00l 0.19 ± 0.04a 2.43 3
    A3P3 1.07 ± 0.15d 0.19 ± 0.01c 0.25 ± 0.00e 0.17 ± 0.02ab 1.68 10
    A2P4 1.72 ± 0.07abc 0.14 ± 0.01d 0.33 ± 0.00b 0.15 ± 0.02b 2.35 5
    A1P5 0.08 ± 0.04e 0.11 ± 0.00e 0.19 ± 0.00g 0.09 ± 0.02c 0.49 14
    A0P6 1.50 ± 0.25c 0.09 ± 0.00fgh 0.15 ± 0.00i 0.19 ± 0.02a 1.92 8
    下载: 导出CSV
    凯时66
  • 加载中
计量
  • PDF下载量:  3
  • 文章访问数:  154
  • HTML全文浏览量:  39
文章相关
  • 通讯作者:  王国栋, 93053048@qq.com
  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-19
  • 接受日期:  2021-08-16
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-22
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

/

返回文章
凯时66