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AM真菌群落结构对根系特征的响应

刘雅洁 王玉丹 曹红月 王琦玲 李海薇 阚佳莹 杨春雪

引用本文: 刘雅洁,王玉丹,曹红月,王琦玲,李海薇,阚佳莹,杨春雪. AM真菌群落结构对根系特征的响应. 草业科学, 2022, 39(6): 1-12 doi: shu
Citation:  LIU Y J, WANG Y D, CAO H Y, WANG Q L, LI H W, KAN J Y, YANG C X. Response of AM fungal community to root characteristics. Pratacultural Science, 2022, 39(6): 1-12 doi: shu

AM真菌群落结构对根系特征的响应

    作者简介: 刘雅洁(1998-),女,山东淄博人,在读硕士生,主要从事菌根生理生态研究。E-mail: 1334357238@qq.com
    通讯作者: 杨春雪(1977-),女,黑龙江伊春人,副教授,博士,主要从事菌根生理生态研究。E-mail: senxiu99@163.com
  • 基金项目:  国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(31601986);黑龙江省博士后科研启动金(LBH-Q16005)

摘要: 丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM)真菌作为专性寄生菌,可与植物共生并发挥生态功能,为探究植物根系结构特征对AM真菌多样性的影响,以东北林业大学校园内的二月兰(Orychophragmus violaceus)、八宝景天(Sedum spectabile)、狼尾草(Pennisetum alopecuroides)和肥皂草(Saponaria officinals)为材料,分析4种植物的根长、表面积、投影面积、平均直径、总体积、根尖数、分枝数和交叉数,测定根围土的理化性质,分离根围土中的孢子并进行形态鉴定。结果表明:4种植物根围共鉴定到AM真菌6属27种,其中狼尾草根围鉴定出5属15种,为共生AM真菌种最丰富的植物,波罗的海内养囊霉(Entrophospora baltica)分布于每种植物的根围土中,对不同植物根围AM真菌多样性的影响较小。根系特征影响了植物根围AM真菌的分布,且根表面积和投影面积所发挥的影响力最大。研究结果可为了解AM真菌多样性与植物根系特征的关系提供理论依据。

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  • 凯时66

    图 1  4种植物根围AM真菌孢子特征

    Figure 1.  Sporal characteristics of AM fungi in the rhizosphere of four plants

    图 2  物种组成聚类

    Figure 2.  Clustering analysis of species composition

    图 3  4种植物根围AM真菌群落组成的韦恩图

    Figure 3.  Venn map of AM fungal community composition around four plants

    图 4  4种植物根系扫描图像

    Figure 4.  Roots scanning images of four plants

    图 5  根系结构特征与AM真菌多样性的相关性分析

    Figure 5.  Correlation analysis between AM fungal diversity and root characteristics

    O. violaceus:二月兰;S. officinals:肥皂草;P. alopecuroides:狼尾草;S. spectabile:八宝景天;G. etunicatum:幼套球囊霉;G. reticulatum:网状球囊霉;S. reticulata:网纹盾巨孢囊霉;E. baltica:波罗的海内养囊霉;A. elegans:丽孢无梗囊霉;Len:总根长;SA:表面积;PA:投影面积;Vol:根体积;AvgD:平均直径;NTips:根尖数;NForks:分枝数;NCross:交叉数。

    Len: length; SA: superficial area; PA: projected area; : AvgDaverage diameter; Vol: volume; NTips: tip number; NForks: forks number; NCross: number of cross.

    表 1  东北林业大学的土壤理化特性

    Table 1.   Soil physicochemical properties of Northeast Forestry University

    样地
    Sampling
    site
    pH
    电导率
    Conductivity/
    (mS·cm–1)
    有机质含量
    Organic
    content/%
    A6.58 ± 0.08a0.104 ± 0.001c4.30 ± 0.37b
    B6.67 ± 0.09a0.159 ± 0.002a5.39 ± 0.62b
    C6.66 ± 0.12a0.109 ± 0.001b7.05 ± 0.36a
    平均 Average6.630.1245.58
     样地A、B、C分别为新校区、老校区和家属区;同列不同字母表示地块间差异显著(P < 0.05);下表同。
     Plot A, B and C are the new campus, the old campus and the family area respectively; different letters within the same column indicate significant difference among the sites at the 0.05 level; this is applicable for the following tables as well.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  4种植物根围AM真菌种类及特征

    Table 2.  Species and characteristics of AM fungi in the rhizosphere of four plants


    Genus

    Species
    孢子颜色
    Spores color
    孢子直径
    Spores diameter
    孢子大小
    Spores size/μm
    其他特征
    Other characteristics
    无梗囊霉属
    Acaulospora
    浅窝无梗囊霉
    A. lacunosa
    深棕或黑棕色
    Dark brown or black brown
    球形、椭圆形、梨形
    Spherical, elliptic, pear-shaped
    122~158 孢子壁层状,表面满布不规则点状、条形、锥形、半圆形或蝶形。
    The surface of layered wall is present as irregular punctate, strip, conical, semicircle, or butterfly.
    双网无梗囊霉
    A. bireticulata
    淡黄绿色
    Yellowish green
    球形至椭圆形
    Spherical to elliptic
    120~180 易碎,表面有双层网状纹饰,内部有透明的小油滴。
    Fragile, the surface is with double mesh pattern and transparent oil droplets are inside it.
    细凹无梗囊霉
    A. scrobiculata
    淡黄至黄褐色
    Pale yellow to yellowish brown
    球形至近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    110~160 孢壁表面有凹坑形纹饰。
    The surface of the sporal wall is decorated with pits.
    丽孢无梗囊霉
    A. elegans
    黄棕色至橘红色
    Yellowish-brown to orange-red
    球形至近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    98~140 表面有双层细刺状纹饰,刺外有蜂窝状透明网。
    The surface is with double spines and a honeycomb net on the outside.
    原囊霉属
    Archaeospora
    薄壁原囊霉
    A. leptoticha
    灰白至浅黄色
    Gray to light yellow
    球或不规则形
    Globose or irregularly shaped
    50~250 孢子表面常有附着物或呈斑块状,偶有网状饰物。
    The surface is often present as patch, occasionally with reticular decorations.
    内养囊霉属
    Entrophospora
    波罗的海内养
    囊霉
    E. baltica
    浅黄色至橘色
    Light yellow to orange
    球形至近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    200~270 外覆菌丝套,Melzer’s染色为胭脂
    红色。
    The spore is covered with mycelium, it can be dyed to rouge red by Melzer's.
    哥伦比亚内养
    囊霉
    E. colombiana
    浅黄色至黄色
    Light yellow to yellow
    球形至近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    85~120 L2浅黄色至棕黄色,孢子内含物为淡黄色颗粒。
    L2 is yellowish to brownish yellow, and the spore inclusions is pale yellow particles.
    盾巨孢囊霉属Scutellospora 亮色盾巨孢囊霉
    S. fulgida
    透明至浅稻草色
    Transparent to
    light straw color
    圆形至卵圆形
    Rounded to ovoid
    142~205 壁两层,L2被Melzer’s试剂染成浅
    黄色。
    With two walls, L2 will be dyed to light yellow by Melzer's.
    网纹盾巨孢囊霉
    S. reticulata
    橘红至黑红棕色
    Orange-red to black-red-brown
    圆形至近圆形
    Round to nearly round
    380~430 外表有突起网格,网格上有钝圆椎形的刺。
    The outer surface has a raised grid with blunt cone-shaped spines.
    异配盾巨孢囊霉
    S. heterogama
    黄棕至深棕色
    Yellow brown to dark brown
    球形至近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    185~205 壁两层,L1为具有疣状乳突的均
    一壁。
    The wall has two layers, L1 is a uniform wall with verrucous mastoid process.
    巨孢囊霉属
    Gigaspora
    易误巨孢囊霉
    Gi. decipiens
    金色
    Golden
    球形至近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    280~420 外层孢壁有深色晕圈。
    The outer sporal wall has dark halo.
    球囊霉属
    Glomus
    摩西球囊霉
    G. mosseae
    淡黄色至黄褐色
    Light yellow to yellowish brown
    球形或近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    105~250 L1孢壁被Melzer’s试剂染成浅粉色;连孢菌丝漏斗状,菌丝基部有分隔,内含物为颗粒状油滴。
    L1 will be dyed to light pink by Melzer’s reagent; Hypha is funnel-shaped, and hypha base has a partition, the inclusions is granular oil droplets.
    下载: 导出CSV
    续表 2(1)
    Table 2(Continued)

    Genus

    Species
    孢子颜色
    Spores color
    孢子直径
    Spores diameter
    孢子大小
    Spores size/μm
    其他特征
    Other characteristics
    副冠球囊霉
    G. coronatum
    浅黄色至黄棕色
    Light yellow to yellowish brown
    球至不规则形
    Globose to subglobose
    120~210 由一菌丝包被包裹2~6个孢子,内含物为无色透明油滴。
    2~6 spores are encapsulated by mycelium, and the inclusions is colorless transparent oil droplets.
    膨果球囊霉
    G. pansihalos
    黄、棕黄或黑橘
    Yellow, tan or black orange
    近球形或不规则
    Subspherical or irregular
    110~190 表面常有绒毛状薄壁菌丝。菌丝在乳酸中加粗。
    The surface is often covered with villous thin-walled mycelia. Hypha slightly expand in lactic acid.
    黄金球囊霉
    G. aureum
    浅橘至橘色
    Light orange to orange
    不规则形
    Irregular
    35~65 由孢子堆积组成,壁两层,连孢菌丝圆柱或漏斗状。
    Composing of accumulational spores, the wall has two layers, hypha is cylindrical or funnel-shaped.
    黑球囊霉
    G. melanosporum
    黑棕至黑红棕色
    Black brown to black reddish brown
    球形、椭圆形、梨形或卵形
    Spherical, elliptic, pear-shaped or ovate
    70~115 L1无色透明,L2红棕色至黑棕色,向内颜色变浅。
    L1 is colorless and transparent, L2 is reddish-brown to black-brown, and the spore gradually becomes lighter inwardly.
    幼套球囊霉
    G. etunicatum
    棕黄色
    Tan
    球形至不规则形
    Spherical to irregularly shaped
    90~190 连孢菌丝:连点宽6~10 μm,连点为孢壁阻塞。
    Hypha: connecting point is 6 − 10 μm in width and it is obstructed.
    缩球囊霉
    G. constrictum
    深黄棕至黑棕色
    Dark yellow
    brown to
    black brown
    圆形、近圆形、椭圆或长圆形
    Circular, subcircular, elliptic or oblong
    97~220 壁分界线红棕色至黑棕色。连孢菌丝常偏向孢子一侧,菌丝有分支。
    The wall boundary is reddish brown to black brown. Hyphae often incline to one side, and the hypha is branched.
    地表球囊霉
    G. versiforme
    黄色至棕黄色
    Yellow to
    brownish yellow
    圆形或近圆形
    Round to nearly round
    90~150 连点直或小喇叭形,封闭。
    Point is straight or small bell-shaped, and it is closed.
    隐球囊霉
    G. occultum
    无色至淡黄色
    Colorless to pale yellow
    球形、梨形或椭圆形
    Spherical, pear-shaped or oval
    55~140 L1被Melzer’s试剂染成橘黄色。连孢菌丝硬直,连点直筒型或漏斗状,内层壁形成锥形漏斗状隔。
    L1 is dyed to orange by Melzer’s. Hypha is hard straight, connecting point is tube or funnel-shaped, inner wall form a conical funnel-shaped septum.
    沙荒球囊霉
    G. deserticola
    红棕至深棕色
    Reddish brown
    to dark brown
    球形至椭圆形
    Spherical to elliptic
    50~120 壁单层,连孢菌丝柱状或稍呈漏
    斗状,菌丝壁淡红色,在近连点
    处加厚。
    The wall is single layer, hypha is columnar or slightly funnel-shaped, the mycelium wall is light red and it thickens near the connecting point.
    具疱球囊霉
    G. pustulatum
    橘棕色
    Orange-brown
    球形或不规则
    Spherical or irregular
    86~140 外表有疱状突起;连孢菌丝与L2
    相连。
    Appearance is with protuberant blisters. Hypha associates with L2.
    团集球囊霉
    G. glomerulatum
    黄至黄褐色
    Yellow to tan
    球形至椭圆形
    Spherical to elliptic
    50~70 大量孢子聚集成孢子果。连孢菌丝较粗,1~2根。
    Large numbers of spores gather to form sporofruit. Hypha is thick, 1~2.
    下载: 导出CSV
    续表 2 (2)
    Table 2 (Continued)

    Genus

    Species
    孢子颜色
    Spores color
    孢子直径
    Spores diameter
    孢子大小
    Spores size/μm
    其他特征
    Other features
    卷曲球囊霉
    G. convolutum
    浅橘至黄色
    Light orange to yellow
    球形至近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    63~193 孢子果无包被,壁层状。内含物为小油滴。
    Sporocarps are not encapsulated and sporophyte walls are layered. The inclusions is small oil droplets.
    长孢球囊霉
    G. dolichosporum
    黄棕至红棕色
    Yellow brown to reddish brown
    卵形或长椭圆形
    Oval or oblong
    100~200 连孢菌丝连点处增厚,向下逐渐减薄呈漏斗状。
    The hypha thickens at the connecting point, and it gradually narrows to shape as funnel shape.
    宽柄球囊霉
    G. magnicaule
    黄棕色
    Yellow brown
    球或近球形
    Globose to subglobose
    125~175 连孢菌丝宽扁、连点增厚堵塞连点。
    Hypha is wide and flat, and it is thickened and blocked at connecting point.
    网状球囊霉
    G. reticulatum
    黑棕色
    Black-brown
    球形
    Spherical
    80~150 壁3层,表面网状纹。连孢菌丝直筒或微漏斗形。
    The wall has three layers and the surface is reticulated. Hyphae is tube or slightly funnel-shaped.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  4种植物根系结构特征

    Table 3.  Root structure characteristics of four plants

    植物名称
    Species
    name
    总根长
    Length/
    cm
    表面积
    Superficial area/cm2
    投影面积
    Projected area/cm2
    体积
    Volume/
    cm3
    平均直径
    Average diameter/mm
    根尖数
    Tip
    number
    分枝数
    Forks
    number
    交叉数
    Cross
    number
    二月兰
    O. violaceus
    35.36 ± 4.81b 6.86 ± 1.73b 2.19 ± 0.43b 0.107 ± 0.027b 0.61 ± 0.04b 133.33 ± 0.88b 128.00 ± 15.00b 10.00 ± 2.00b
    肥皂草
    S. officinals
    29.41 ± 1.53b 6.45 ± 0.99b 2.05 ± 0.31b 0.115 ± 0.029b 0.69 ± 0.07b 97.00 ± 10.26c 149.00 ± 28.00b 16.67 ± 2.18b
    狼尾草
    P. alopecuroides
    160.10 ± 19.70a 27.74 ± 4.68a 8.83 ± 1.49a 0.384 ± 0.083a 0.55 ± 0.02b 374.00 ± 7.64a 550.00 ± 80.00a 60.00 ± 14.00a
    八宝景天
    S. spectabile
    9.77 ± 0.41b 7.44 ± 0.46b 2.37 ± 0.15b 0.452 ± 0.038a 2.42 ± 0.06a 41.67 ± 5.36d 68.00 ± 7.00b 6.33 ± 1.76b
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  • 通讯作者:  杨春雪, senxiu99@163.com
  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-14
  • 接受日期:  2022-01-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-14
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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